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At least there is no evidence that deer pens spread cwd huh. :rolleyes:
I just find it funny that the ranch owner just so happened to ship 900 deer out of his ranch. Wonder how many of those were shipped out immediately after a positive was reported? Maybe in knowing they were all going to be killed? Probably not though we all know that would be unethical right:confused:
 

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Discussion Starter · #62 ·
Texas tahc deer breeder cwd permit rules emergency adoption preamble

Thursday, August 20, 2015

*** TEXAS TAHC DEER BREEDER CWD PERMIT RULES EMERGENCY ADOPTION PREAMBLE ***

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2015/08/texas-tahc-deer-breeder-cwd-permit.html

Under Texas law, though, breeder deer belong to the state, not the permittee. See, e.g., TEX. PARKS & WILD. CODE §§ 1.011 ("All wild animals . . . inside the borders of this state are the property of the people of this state."); 43.364 ("All breeder deer . . . are under the full force of the laws of [Texas] pertaining to deer . . . ."). While a permittee may have possession of the breeder deer, the deer are only "held under a permit[.]" Id. § 43.351. Nowhere do the statutes or regulations state that breeder deer become the property of a permit holder.4 Regardless, even if they did give ownership of breeder deer to permit holders, the Andertons were not permit holders when the deer were killed.

http://www.ca5.uscourts.gov/opinions%5Cunpub%5C14/14-10297.0.pdf

While a permittee may have possession of the breeder deer, the deer are only "held under a permit[.]" Id. § 43.351

http://www.statutes.legis.state.tx.us/Docs/PW/htm/PW.43.htm

S.B. No. 820

http://www.legis.state.tx.us/tlodocs/83R/billtext/html/SB00820F.HTM

http://openstates.org/tx/bills/83/SB820/

Texas Senate Bill

Relating to the management, breeding, and destruction of deer and to procedures regarding certain deer permits.

View latest bill text Session:83rd Legislature (2013)

http://openstates.org/tx/bills/83/SB820/

Thursday, August 20, 2015

TEXAS CAPTIVE Deer Industry, Pens, Breeding, Big Business, Invites Crooks and CWD

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2015/08/texas-captive-deer-industry-pens.html

kind regards, terry

 

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Thursday, August 20, 2015

*** TEXAS TAHC DEER BREEDER CWD PERMIT RULES EMERGENCY ADOPTION PREAMBLE ***

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2015/08/texas-tahc-deer-breeder-cwd-permit.html

Under Texas law, though, breeder deer belong to the state, not the permittee. See, e.g., TEX. PARKS & WILD. CODE §§ 1.011 (“All wild animals . . . inside the borders of this state are the property of the people of this state.â€); 43.364 (“All breeder deer . . . are under the full force of the laws of [Texas] pertaining to deer . . . .â€). While a permittee may have possession of the breeder deer, the deer are only “held under a permit[.]†Id. § 43.351. Nowhere do the statutes or regulations state that breeder deer become the property of a permit holder.4 Regardless, even if they did give ownership of breeder deer to permit holders, the Andertons were not permit holders when the deer were killed.

http://www.ca5.uscourts.gov/opinions%5Cunpub%5C14/14-10297.0.pdf

While a permittee may have possession of the breeder deer, the deer are only “held under a permit[.]†Id. § 43.351

http://www.statutes.legis.state.tx.us/Docs/PW/htm/PW.43.htm

S.B. No. 820

http://www.legis.state.tx.us/tlodocs/83R/billtext/html/SB00820F.HTM

http://openstates.org/tx/bills/83/SB820/

Texas Senate Bill

Relating to the management, breeding, and destruction of deer and to procedures regarding certain deer permits.

View latest bill text Session:83rd Legislature (2013)

http://openstates.org/tx/bills/83/SB820/

Thursday, August 20, 2015

TEXAS CAPTIVE Deer Industry, Pens, Breeding, Big Business, Invites Crooks and CWD

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2015/08/texas-captive-deer-industry-pens.html

kind regards, terry

Not the case in Missouri....
 

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Discussion Starter · #65 ·
Tuesday, September 15, 2015

***Texas TAHC Chronic Wasting Disease Confirmed in Lavaca County Captive White-tailed Deer; Linked to Index Herd ***

http://tpwd.texas.gov/newsmedia/releases/?req=20150916a

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2015/09/news-release-texas-animal-health.html

RAW, UNCUT, AND UNCENSORED

Sunday, August 23, 2015

*** TAHC Chronic Wasting Disease CWD TSE Prion and how to put lipstick on a pig and take her to the dance in Texas ***

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2015/08/tahc-chronic-wasting-disease-cwd-tse.html

***They then sold breeding services and semen from the deer to breeders around the U.S."

Sunday, August 02, 2015

TEXAS CWD, Have you been ThunderStruck, deer semen, straw bred bucks, super ovulation, and the potential TSE Prion connection, what if?

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2015/08/texas-cwd-have-you-been-thunderstruck.html

Tuesday, September 15, 2015

Deer-trafficking scheme nets record $1.6 million fine herds not certified to be free from chronic wasting disease, tuberculosis and brucellosis

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2015/09/deer-trafficking-scheme-nets-record-16.html

Saturday, September 12, 2015

*** In utero transmission and tissue distribution of chronic wasting disease-associated prions in free-ranging Rocky Mountain elk ***

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2015/09/in-utero-transmission-and-tissue.html

Sunday, September 13, 2015

*** urine, feces, and chronic wasting disease cwd tse prion risk factors, loading up the environment ***

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2015/09/urine-feces-and-chronic-wasting-disease.html

Friday, August 28, 2015

*** Chronic Wasting Disease CWD TSE Prion Diagnostics and subclinical infection ***

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2015/08/chronic-wasting-disease-cwd-tse-prion.html

TEXAS DEER CZAR SENT TO WISCONSIN TO SOLVE CWD CRISIS, WHILE ROME (TEXAS) BURNS

Tuesday, August 11, 2015

*** Wisconsin doing what it does best, procrastinating about CWD yet again thanks to Governor Walker

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2015/08/wisconsin-doing-what-it-does-best.html

Wednesday, March 04, 2015

*** Disease sampling results provide current snapshot of CWD in Wisconsin finding 324 positive detections statewide in 2014

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2015/03/disease-sampling-results-provide.html

Friday, June 01, 2012

*** TEXAS DEER CZAR TO WISCONSIN ASK TO EXPLAIN COMMENTS

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2012/06/texas-deer-czar-to-wisconsin-ask-to.html

Wednesday, September 16, 2015

WISCONSIN CAPTIVE CERVID INDUSTRY RUNNING WILD AND ON THE LOOSE RISKING FURTHER SPREAD OF CWD

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2015/09/wisconsin-captive-cervid-industry.html

kind regards, terry
 

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I know a few HR ranchers in Texas, and they all had to do the same thing. The state came in, and made them kill a certain about of deer per how many they had. I dont know the numbers off hand. Here are a few pics of the aftermath. It is said that there is live testing that can be done, but the state wanted them to kill, and remove the heads for testing. Im not a fan of HF hunting, but it seems crazy to step in and force someone to kill Livestock ,if you will, for testing. If its HF, what are the chances that it spread to outside animals? Does it travel in the water supply?
 

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Im not a fan of HF hunting, but it seems crazy to step in and force someone to kill Livestock ,if you will, for testing.
They are not considered livestock in Texas either. The live test has not yet been approved by the FDA or the USDA. There are actually 2 live tests. I don't know if they don't provide enough certainty or what the hold up is on approving it.

They can spread the disease outside the fences by nose to nose contact with wild deer. The biggest threat in my opinion is the escapes. And in Texas it is legal for them to release those deer into the wild.

The reason they started this aggressive testing is because of the operation that had positives show up in it a few months ago revealing they had shipped over 900 deer out of that facility. I think the mandatory testing is being done at operations that the original facility had shipped deer to.
 

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Discussion Starter · #68 ·
censored, unedited, and uncut

hope this don’t get me banned here. I am going to repeat this here, uncut, uncensored. in response to the shock factor game the headless deer pictures were suppose to bring forth. so please don't take the same offense I did to those pictures.

I had to sign for a head brain autopsy for my mother for this gd disease, and then I donated my mothers brain to science to study and hold for future use for all of us.

you can pile up all the dead deer you want with the heads cut off, but it will not change the fact that you all knew this was coming, and chose to ignore it while the money machine was paying out. now due to industries ignorance and greed, and the government for ignoring it and or the same thing, everyone wants to stand back and point fingers. well, it's too late now. the mad cow is out of the barn, and so are the mad deer. ...so you breeders and industry, go take those **** pictures of those headless deer, and go stand and look in the mirror. you all knew this was coming, chose to ignore it, not only ignore it, but work to deregulate it further, knowing good and **** well it was coming. ...

a review since the TEXAS 84th Legislature commencing this January, deer breeders are expected to advocate for bills that will seek to further deregulate their industry...

Sunday, December 14, 2014

TEXAS 84th Legislature commencing this January, deer breeders are expected to advocate for bills that will seek to further deregulate their industry

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2014/12/texas-84th-legislature-commencing-this.html

Tuesday, December 16, 2014

Texas 84th Legislature 2015 H.R. No. 2597 Kuempel Deer Breeding Industry TAHC TPWD CWD TSE PRION

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2014/12/texas-84th-legislature-2015-hr-no-2597.html

snip...

*** raw, uncut, and uncensored ***

snip...

I was listening to a radio show the other day here in the Galveston bay area, and outdoor show, they had a breeder or someone from the industry on, and I was amazed at the false information he was spewing. the part about the poor little girl with her pet deer crying in the breeder pen, ......cry me a friggen river, they are raising the **** deer to put in a pen to slaughter, or to breed for that purpose, AND you ought to see a human die from this ****. my mother did everything Linda Blair did in that movie the exorcist except spin her head 360 degrees. she DID levitate in bed because she would jerk so bad, where it took three grown strong adults to hold her down to keep her from hurting herself, all the while screaming God why can’t I stop this. so cry me a ****ing river on a **** deer they are raising to have slaughtered, but whine because the TPWD et al are going to kill it to try and prevent the spread of disease cwd. if the TPWD et al had a better way of confirming or not whether those cervid had CWD, they would do it. the live tests they have to date do not work 100%, so there for they have not been validated. oh that’s fine with the pen owners, but it’s not fine for Texas. you don’t want a cwd test that just works part of the time. it’s total ignorance out there now, and they will put lipstick on this pig and take her to the dance, just like TAHC did with mad cow disease, and that’s well documented. they will change what ever law to meet their needs$$$ I will agree with this much of what the industry said this morning, that cwd has been in Texas for a long time, and in the pens to, and that the TAHC has not tested enough, that much he got correct. I have been saying this year, after year, after year, since back to 2001, to the TAHC, and told them exactly where they should be testing back in 2001, and then year after year after year, up and until 2012, where they finally did test there in enough numbers to find it a decade later, exactly where I been saying it was. the cwd deer have been waltzing across Texas from there for over a decade. it does not matter if I am pro-pen or not. that will not and does not change the science. why in the hell did they speak about the 4 confirmed deer from that index herd, yes, I said 4 now. why is not the TAHC TPWD telling that to the public now. why did not that guy today speak of 4? all the newspapers are reporting it, and I ask about the 4th case weeks and weeks ago? where is that information at on TAHC site? I am a meat eater, I am pro-hunt, and extremely pro-gun, I am however anti-stupid and anti-prion, prions can kill you, I don’t want to eat prions, you should not either. but here is the kicker, you eat meat infected with CWD TSE prion, your exposed, however you never go clinical in your life........BBBUT, your exposed and if you go on to have surgical, dental, tissue, blood donations, etc. you risk exposing my family and others...I will simply post this one short abstract of an old study the late great Dr. Gibbs did, an old friend of mine I corresponded with many times before his passing.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=8006664&dopt=Abstract

snip...

Singeltary Sunday School Class

o.k. I’m going to get Biblical today, it’s Sunday. I think the way I have interpreted the Bible to date, from the parts I have read and understood. God gave Man the duty of caretaker of the animals, and in that, we could eat them, while taking care of them. I think we have failed terribly in the way we take care of animals, the way we raise them for consumption. we failed God, and I think God is trying to tell us something here with CWD TSE prion. even with the scorched earth policy that I still say we must go by to date as much as I hate it, to eradicate CWD TSE prion, I think it’s all a part of Gods wrath, in that we have failed terribly as the stewards of the animails he told us to be, and has brought his wrath upon us, in the form of CWD TSE prion disease. we went from the hunt for food, the hunt to fill our freezers that God gave us, and in plenty. we went from that, to an industry crying about all those headless deer in Texas due to the fact it’s the only sure fire way to test for CWD with accuracy, to try and prevent a deadly disease in both animal and man, and to save the environment from further spread of CWD, yet these same people crying about all those headless deer will all rush to the taxidermist with a head to have mounted to fill ones wall full of heads. or you will have some poor breeder family, urine mill family, antler deer family, pen owner family, high/low fence owner family, sperm mill straw bred buck family, all crying because their pet deer are being slaughtered, yet in the long run, that’s just what they are raising the deer for anyone, to be slaughtered. I guess I don’t understand that part. ...I’m just thinking out of the box today, please understand I am still a meat eater, I guess just a bit disgusted with myself and others today. Sunday School class is over. carry on...

snip...

full text ;

Sunday, August 23, 2015

TAHC Chronic Wasting Disease CWD TSE Prion and how to put lipstick on a pig and take her to the dance in Texas

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2015/08/tahc-chronic-wasting-disease-cwd-tse.html

http://collections.europarchive.org/tna/20080102193705/http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/mb/m11b/tab01.pdf

http://collections.europarchive.org/tna/20090505194948/http://bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/mb/m09/tab05.pdf

In Confidence - Perceptions of unconventional slow virus diseases of animals in the USA - APRIL-MAY 1989 - G A H Wells

3. Prof. A. Robertson gave a brief account of BSE. The US approach was to accord it a very low profile indeed. Dr. A Thiermann showed the picture in the ''Independent'' with cattle being incinerated and thought this was a fanatical incident to be avoided in the US at all costs. ...

http://web.archive.org/web/20060307063531/http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/mb/m11b/tab01.pdf

*** Spraker suggested an interesting explanation for the occurrence of CWD. The deer pens at the Foot Hills Campus were built some 30-40 years ago by a Dr. Bob Davis. At or abut that time, allegedly, some scrapie work was conducted at this site. When deer were introduced to the pens they occupied ground that had previously been occupied by sheep.

http://collections.europarchive.org/tna/20080102193705/http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/mb/m11b/tab01.pdf

Terry S. Singeltary Sr.
 

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the live tests they have to date do not work 100%, so there for they have not been validated. .
I have read they were 97% accurate somewhere. I couldn't find if they gave false positives or if they gave false negatives or what the particulars were. I think there are some tests for other animal diseases that will occasionally produce false positives, which is acceptable, just so long as they don't produce false negatives. Does that sound right ?
 

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Discussion Starter · #70 ·
I have read they were 97% accurate somewhere. I couldn't find if they gave false positives or if they gave false negatives or what the particulars were. I think there are some tests for other animal diseases that will occasionally produce false positives, which is acceptable, just so long as they don't produce false negatives. Does that sound right ?
ARE THE TESTS INFALLIBLE?

NO!

All test methods are somewhat subjective and are constantly subject to misinterpretation and interference. Bacteria have been known to confuse test results. False negatives are common during the early stage of disease and false positives are possible. Post-mortem sampling procedures and sample treatment after collection will potentially affect results. Human errors are always possible.

http://www.stopcwd.org/library/library2.cfm?articleID=13

Research Looks at Test to Identify Chronic Wasting Disease in Wildlife Page Image Dr. Ed Hoover Dr. Ed Hoover

CVMBSHTML1

A Colorado State University study is developing and evaluating a more sensitive test for chronic wasting disease â€" including the potential to test for infection in live animals, animal products, and the environment â€" through a project funded by Denver-based Morris Animal Foundation. The disease, which affects deer, moose and elk and is related to similar diseases in cattle and sheep, is a primary concern for hunters and wildlife ranchers and now affects wildlife in 19 states, two Canadian provinces and one Asian country. Prions are rogue proteins that cause the family of diseases that include CWD. The diseases are known as spongiform encephalopathies. While this Morris Animal Foundation-funded study would be the first in several steps to develop and evaluate a potential new test, it will look at a method that shows promise in detecting a wider array of prions at lower levels than are currently detected. The research into the potential test may allow detection of CWD prions in live animals, animal products and the environment. “Developing this test may eventually lead to a more rapid and sensitive to test for CWD,†said Dr. Ed Hoover, a Professor in the Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology. “But, just as significantly, it may lead to a substantial gain in our understanding of how prions spread, survive in natural habitats, and impact animal and public health.†Currently, CWD can only be identified either by testing brain after an animal is deceased or by surgical sampling and testing lymphatic tissues. While researchers don’t know exactly how CWD is passed from animal to animal, CSU scientists discovered that body fluids such as saliva, blood, urine and feces harbor infectious prions. Animals can then be exposed by direct contact with an infected animal or by contact with a contaminated environment. Current tests also don’t detect all levels of or kinds of infectious prions or prions in the environment, and the test being evaluated in this study has the potential to be developed into a process that would detect those prions. The test is being researched in collaboration with Dr. Byron Caughey at the National Institutes of Health’s Rocky Mountain Laboratory in Hamilton, Mont. Dr. Caughey’s laboratory developed the strategy for the study. Dr. Hoover, Dr. Caughey and colleagues will focus first on determining if their proposed test detects prions in body fluids with greater sensitivity, accuracy and faster output than is currently possible. It is unknown why an infectious prion from one species, such as deer or elk, can “jump†to infect another species, and the potential risk to other species such as cattle, or even humans, remains uncertain.

http://csu-cvmbs.colostate.edu/Pages/hoover-ed.aspx
 

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Discussion Starter · #71 ·
ARE THE TESTS INFALLIBLE?

NO!
snip...
P170

Clinical Stage of Infection is Critical in the Antemortem Diagnosis of Chronic Wasting Disease in Deer and Elk

Chris Siepker1, Nicholas Haley1, W. David Walter2, Matteo Manca3, Laura Hoon-Hanks4, Ryan Monello5, Jenny Powers5, Justin Greenlee6 , Bruce Thomsen7 , Aaron Lehmkuhl7, Gordon Mitchell8, Tracy Nichols9,Byron Caughey3, Edward Hoover4, and Juergen Richt1.

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an e f f i c i e n t l y t r a n s mi t t e d s p o n g i f o r m encephalopathy of cervids (e.g. deer, elk, and moose), and is the only known prion disease affecting both free-ranging wildlife and captive animals. The antemortem detection of CWD and other prion diseases has proven difficult, due in part to difficulties in identifying an appropriate peripheral tissue specimen and complications with conventional test sensitivity. At present, biopsies of the recto-

Prion2015 Program Guide 22

anal mucosal-associated lymphoid tissues (RAMALT) have shown promising sensitivity and are not impractical to collect in live animals. Nasal brush collections have likewise proven both sensitive and practical for identification of prion infections in humans. In this study, we evaluated both RAMALT and nasal brush collections by real time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC), and compared our findings to RAMALT immu n o h i s t o c h emi s t r y a s we l l a s conventional postmortem evaluation of obex and retropharyngeal lymph node tissues from over 700 captive and free-ranging deer and elk in areas with endemic CWD. We correlated our results with various clinical findings, including pathological stage of infection as determined by obex scoring, PrP genotype, age, and sex. While the sensitivity of RAMALT RT-QuIC analyses exceeded that of RAMALT IHC (69-80% vs. >44%) and nasal brush collections (15-30%), the sensitivity of both biopsy and nasal brush analyses were dependent primarily on clinical stage of disease, although PrP genotype was also an important predictor of sample positivity. Our findings further demonstrate the potential and limitations of antemortem sample analyses by RT-QuIC in the identification and management of prion diseases.

========

P179

Detection of CWD prion in fecal samples by RT-QuIC

Yo Ching Cheng1, Theodore Ralph John2, Sampson Law3, Stephanie Czub4, Sabine Gilch1 1Department of Ecosystem and Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 2Department of Molecular Biology, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming, USA, 3Department of Comparative Biology and Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 4Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) Lethbridge Laboratory, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a prion disease which mainly affects captive and wild cervids in North America. To date, cases in elk, mule deer, white-tailed deer and moose h a v e b e e n r e p o r t e d . I n C W D , infectious prions are transported from the CNS into a wide range of peripheral tissues, body fluids, excreta and eventually shed into the environment. In order to detect the disease, the use of easily accessible specimens such as feces would be a practical way for prion detection. However, those excretions and secretions harbor relatively low concentrations of prions which challenge current diagnosis methods. In an earlier study, we demonstrated that CWD prions are detectable in urine collected from pre-symptomatic deer and in fecal extracts by real-time quaking-induced conversion assay (RT-QuIC). RT-QuIC employs minute amounts of PrPSc as a seed to initiate conformational transition of recombinant PrP (rPrP) by vigorous intermittent shaking. In this study, we aim to improve the detection of CWD pions in fecal extracts by RT-QuIC, and to determine the shedding pattern in feces of elk which were challenged orally with CWD prions in an experimental study. We u s e d m e t h a n o l p r e c i p i t a t i o n , u l t r a c e n t r i f u g a t i o n a n d s o d i u m phosphotungstic acid (NaPTA) precipitation to purify and to concentrate CWD prions in feces. We found that NaPTA precipitation of fecal extracts dose not interfere with seeding activity, but increases the sensitivity of detection. Our data demonstrate that concentration and purification of PrPSc enhances detection of CWD prions in feces, Prion2015 Program Guide 27 which will eventually enable the use of RTQuIC for CWD surveillance.

=============

P200

Clinical Stage of Infection is Critical in the Antemortem Diagnosis of Chronic Wasting Disease in Deer and Elk.

Chris Siepker1, Nicholas Haley1, W. David Walter2, Laura Hoon-Hanks7, Ryan Monello3, Jenny Powers3, Bruce Thomsen4, Justin Greenlee4, Aaron Lehmkuhl4, Gordon Mitchell5, Tracy Nichols6, Edward Hoover7, Juergen Richt1

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an e f f i c i e n t l y t r a n smi t t e d s p o n g i f o r m encephalopathy of cervids (e.g. deer, elk, and moose), and is the only known prion disease affecting both free-ranging wildlife and captive animals. The antemortem detection of CWD and other prion diseases has proven difficult, due in part to difficulties in identifying an appropriate peripheral tissue specimen and complications with conventional test sensitivity. At present, biopsies of the rectoanal mucosal-associated lymphoid tissues (RAMALT) have shown promising sensitivity and are not impractical to collect in live animals. Nasal brush collections have likewise proven both sensitive and practical for identification of prion infections in humans. In this study, we evaluated both RAMALT and nasal brush collections by real time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC), and compared our findings to RAMALT immu n o h i s t o c h emi s t r y a s we l l a s conventional postmortem evaluation of obex and retropharyngeal lymph node tissues from over 700 captive and free-ranging deer and elk in areas with endemic CWD. We correlated our results with various clinical findings, including pathological stage of infection as determined by obex scoring, PrP genotype, age, and sex. While the sensitivity of RAMALT RT-QuIC analyses exceeded that of RAMALT IHC (69-80% vs. >44%) and nasal brush collections (15-30%), the sensitivity of both biopsy and nasal brush analyses were dependent primarily on clinical stage of disease, although PrP genotype was also an important predictor of sample positivity. Our findings further demonstrate the potential and limitations of antemortem sample analyses by RT-QuIC in the identification and management of prion diseases.

https://prion2015.files.wordpress.com/2015/05/programguide1.pdf
 

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Discussion Starter · #72 ·
P170

snip...
Article | Open

Prion Amplification and Hierarchical Bayesian Modeling Refine Detection of Prion Infection

A. Christy Wyckoff , Nathan Galloway , Crystal Meyerett-Reid , Jenny Powers , Terry Spraker , Ryan J. Monello , Bruce Pulford , Margaret Wild , Michael Antolin , Kurt VerCauteren & Mark Zabel
Scientific Reports 5, Article number: 8358 (2015)

doi:10.1038/srep08358 Download Citation Molecular ecology | Proteins | Statistics
Received:27 June 2014Accepted:19 January 2015Published online:10 February 2015 Article Tools

Abstract

Prions are unique infectious agents that replicate without a genome and cause neurodegenerative diseases that include chronic wasting disease (CWD) of cervids. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is currently considered the gold standard for diagnosis of a prion infection but may be insensitive to early or sub-clinical CWD that are important to understanding CWD transmission and ecology. We assessed the potential of serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA) to improve detection of CWD prior to the onset of clinical signs. We analyzed tissue samples from free-ranging Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and used hierarchical Bayesian analysis to estimate the specificity and sensitivity of IHC and sPMCA conditional on simultaneously estimated disease states. Sensitivity estimates were higher for sPMCA (99.51%, credible interval (CI) 97.15-100%) than IHC of obex (brain stem, 76.56%, CI 57.00-91.46%) or retropharyngeal lymph node (90.06%, CI 74.13-98.70%) tissues, or both (98.99%, CI 90.01-100%). Our hierarchical Bayesian model predicts the prevalence of prion infection in this elk population to be 18.90% (CI 15.50-32.72%), compared to previous estimates of 12.90%. Our data reveal a previously unidentified sub-clinical prion-positive portion of the elk population that could represent silent carriers capable of significantly impacting CWD ecology.

============

Overall, our data contribute to the increasing evidence that a portion of a herd may be infected, but die from other causes while infected with PrPCWD because of age, genetic susceptibility or other unknown factors. However, the contribution of prions shed into the environment from this sub-clinical population may be important and requires further investigation. The existence of an infectious PrPCWD carrier state aligns with disease ecology theory, which proposes balance between transmissibility and pathogenesis of a pathogen. As such, through selection pressures from the host and external environment the pathogen will tend towards the greatest transmissibility strategy. CWD transmission may be more complicated than disease ecology might predict, since prolonged persistence and indirect transmission of prions in the environment may potentiate spread without affecting pathogenesis.

Despite the fact that prions are only protein, studies continue to point at evolutionary behavior and selection pressures of prions which indicate that like other pathogens, prions are capable of evolving and adapting to their environment4,27,48,49. With increasing prevalence at the population level, as is reported in this study, sPMCA will continue to be an important tool to investigate CWD in wildlife.

http://www.nature.com/articles/srep08358?message-global=remove&WT.ec_id=SREP-704-20150217

EFFICACY OF ANTEMORTEM RECTAL BIOPSIES TO DIAGNOSE AND ESTIMATE PREVALENCE OF CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE IN FREE-RANGING COW ELK (CERVUS ELAPHUS NELSONI)

Ryan J. Monello,1,6 Jenny G. Powers,1 N. Thompson Hobbs,2 Terry R. Spraker,3 Katherine I. O'Rourke,4,5 and Margaret A. Wild1

1 National Park Service, Biological Resource Management Division, 1201 Oak Ridge Drive, Suite 200, Fort Collins, Colorado 80525, USA
2 Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory and Graduate Degree Program in Ecology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523, USA
3 Colorado State Diagnostic Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523, USA
4 United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal Disease Research Unit, 3003 Animal Disease Biotechnology Facility, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164, USA
5 Current address: Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164, USA
6 Corresponding author (email: [email protected])

ABSTRACT: A reliable antemortem test is needed to understand the ecology of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni). We measured the ability of antemortem biopsy samples from the rectal mucosa to detect the abnormal prion protein associated with CWD (PrPCWD), the relationship between test results from the obex and rectal biopsies at varying stages of CWD progression, and the prevalence of CWD in free-ranging elk from Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, USA. We sampled and placed radio collars on 136 adult female elk in the winter of 2007-08. Elk with biopsy samples found positive for PrPCWD by immunohistochemistry (IHC) were euthanized and the obex and retropharyngeal lymph nodes were examined with IHC. We resampled, euthanized, and necropsied 20, 25, and 34 of the remaining study elk in each of the three following winters, respectively. Sensitivity of rectal biopsy samples increased in an asymptotic fashion with follicle count and was maximized at 85% (95% credible limits [CL]560, 98) in the beginning of the study, when a greater proportion of elk were in a detectable stage of prion infection. However, maximum sensitivity was reduced to 72% (CL546, 94) when we included resampled elk, ***which included recently infected elk that were initially negative using rectal biopsies and IHC. Test results were similar between rectal biopsies and the obex, but the earliest stages of prion infection were only detected by using retropharyngeal lymph nodes. Minimum CWD prevalence was estimated to be 9.9% (CL55.7, 15.7) using rectal biopsies, but this rose to 12.9%

http://www.jwildlifedis.org/doi/pdf/10.7589/2011-12-362
 

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Prion ...snip
AGE AND REPEATED BIOPSY INFLUENCE ANTEMORTEM PRPCWD TESTING IN MULE DEER (ODOCOILEUS HEMIONUS) IN COLORADO, USA

Chris Geremia,1,6,7 Jennifer A. Hoeting,2 Lisa L. Wolfe,3 Nathan L. Galloway,4 Michael F. Antolin,4 Terry R. Spraker,5 Michael W. Miller,3 and N. Thompson Hobbs1 1 Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory, Graduate Degree Program in Ecology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, 80523-1499, USA 2 Department of Statistics, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523, USA 3 Colorado Division of Parks and Wildlife, Wildlife Health Program, 4330 Laporte Avenue, Fort Collins, Colorado 80521, USA 4 Department of Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523-1878, USA 5 Colorado State University Diagnostics Laboratory, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523, USA 6 Current address: Yellowstone Center for Resources, P.O. Box 168, Yellowstone National Park, Mammoth Hot Springs, Wyoming 82190, USA 7 Corresponding author (email: [email protected])

ABSTRACT:

Biopsy of rectal-mucosa associated lymphoid tissue provides a useful, but imperfect, live-animal test for chronic wasting disease (CWD) in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus). It is difficult and expensive to complete these tests on free-ranging animals, and wildlife health managers will benefit from methods that can accommodate test results of varying quality. To this end, we developed a hierarchical Bayesian model to estimate the probability that an individual is infected based on test results. Our model was estimated with the use of data on 210 adult female mule deer repeatedly tested during 201022014. The ability to identify infected individuals correctly declined with age and may have been influenced by repeated biopsy. Fewer isolated lymphoid follicles (where PrPCWD accumulates) were obtained in biopsies of older deer and the proportion of follicles showing PrPCWD was reduced. A deer’s genotype in the prion gene (PRNP) also influenced detection. At least five follicles were needed in a biopsy to assure a 95% accurate test in PRNP genotype 225SS deer.

snip...

Every test sample is not the same; each individual exhibits unique variation, and the technique for estimating CWD infection that we developed here can account for some of these complications. Disease status becomes a probabilistic statement conditioned on the current test result, previous disease status, and infection and test sensitivity probabilities. Therefore, uncertainty in sampling becomes incorporated into the placement of individuals into discrete disease categories. This step forward allows us to make explicit probabilistic statements 0 JOURNAL OF WILDLIFE DISEASES, VOL. 51, NO. 4, OCTOBER 2015 about whether an individual is infected and the chance that a test result is correct. With CWD, rather than conclude that an individual is not infected based on a test with few follicles or decide that the test was inconclusive, we can now state the probability that an individual is truly infected. Consequently, we can make conclusions that ‘‘a 90% chance exists that this deer is not infected, based on the results.’’ Surveillance and containment programs for CWD benefit from an ability to diagnose animals correctly with the use of antemortem tests. Our model can easily be applied to surveillance on mule deer, facilitating use of all available samples regardless of total follicle counts. Probabilistic estimates of the infection status of each tested individual could then be used to provide 95% credible intervals of population prevalence that account for differences in test quality. Our model is robust to differences in population prevalence except when prevalence is low (e.g., ,0.02%), because the detection and infection parameters become inestimable. When planning surveillance in areas where disease may not occur, we recommend assuming values for the test detection parameters to allow for estimation of population prevalence. Our approach also has application to CWD screening for transport of wild or captive deer or targeted culling efforts. Individuals could be identified that require additional testing to confirm disease status with desired levels of certainty, although our approach cannot account for misdiagnosing deer in early stages of infection when PrPCWD is undetectable (Wolfe et al. 2002, 2007). In light of our findings, further attention to the potential for repeated sampling to lower the probability of detecting infection via rectal mucosa biopsy appears warranted before such approaches are substituted for more conventional surveillance that relies on samples collected postmortem.

http://www.jwildlifedis.org/doi/pdf/10.7589/2014-12-284

kind regards, terry
 

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great work Flounder, while at times it does not appear anyone gives a hoot in the end they will. the genie is long out of the bottle she can,t be put back but she can be defeated and will be defeated.
 

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great work Flounder, while at times it does not appear anyone gives a hoot in the end they will. the genie is long out of the bottle she can,t be put back but she can be defeated and will be defeated.
UPDATE TEXAS CWD...THIS IS NOT GOOD GOOSE...TSS

Thursday, September 24, 2015

TEXAS Hunters Asked to Submit Samples for Chronic Wasting Disease CWD TSE Prion Testing

*** I cannot stress enough to all of you, for the sake of your family and mine, before putting anything in the freezer, have those deer tested for CWD.

*** see past warnings about cwd from Shannon Tompkins of the Houston Chronicle *** see video and latest transmission studies and warnings below.

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2015/09/texas-hunters-asked-to-submit-samples.html


kind regards, terry
 

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"Those higher-risk areas include counties where the two captive deer operations are located (Medina and Lavaca) and those around the 46 sites where deer tied to the Medina County breeding operation were released, Lockwood said. "


Ouch. I figured with Texas laws allowing the release of captive deer some of those 900 had been released. But in 46 places ? It has got to cause major concern.

Terry. Any idea if Kroll has chimed in on the situation since its now his back yard instead of someone elses??
 

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Discussion Starter · #78 ·
"Those higher-risk areas include counties where the two captive deer operations are located (Medina and Lavaca) and those around the 46 sites where deer tied to the Medina County breeding operation were released, Lockwood said. "

Ouch. I figured with Texas laws allowing the release of captive deer some of those 900 had been released. But in 46 places ? It has got to cause major concern.

Terry. Any idea if Kroll has chimed in on the situation since its now his back yard instead of someone elses??
i read something somewhere, it seems, don't quote me, something to the effect of, nothing to worry about, little chicken theory or something. a good bad example is what TAHC has already lived up to, in my opinion. you don't continue to knowing let CWD walk across the border for a decade, and do nothing about it, or let an industry self regulate itself via legislation and lobbyist, all the while doing the end around sound science. you get what you ask for...

TEXAS One sorghum DDGS sample out of 168 DG samples was contaminated with bovine spongiform encephalopathy, but the transmission route of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent could not be clearly defined.

J Food Prot. 2015 Oct;78(10):1861-9. doi: 10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-15-157.

Evaluation of Selected Nutrients and Contaminants in Distillers Grains from Ethanol Production in Texas.

Lee KM1, Herrman TJ2. Author information 1Office of the Texas State Chemist, Texas A&M AgriLife Research, Texas A&M University System, College Station, Texas 77841, USA. [email protected]. 2Office of the Texas State Chemist, Texas A&M AgriLife Research, Texas A&M University System, College Station, Texas 77841, USA.

Abstract

This study evaluated distillers grain (DG) by-products produced in different ethanol plants and supplemented in animal diets in Texas, based on samples analyzed from 2008 to 2014. The samples were assessed for concentration, occurrence, and prevalence of selected nutrients and contaminants. Protein and sulfur contents of DG were largely different between corn and sorghum by-products as well as wet distillers grain with solubles and dry distillers grain with solubles (DDGS), indicating a significant effect of grain feedstock and dry-grind process stream on DG composition and quality. Salmonella was isolated in 4 DDGS samples out of a total of 157 DG samples, a percentage (2.5%) that is much lower than the percentage of Salmonella-positive samples found in other feed samples analyzed during the same period. A small amount of virginiamycin residue was found in 24 corn DDGS, 1 corn wet distillers grain with solubles, and 2 sorghum DDGS samples out of 242 samples in total. One sorghum DDGS sample out of 168 DG samples was contaminated with bovine spongiform encephalopathy, but the transmission route of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent could not be clearly defined. The concentrations of aflatoxin and fumonisin DG by-products averaged 3.4 μg/kg and 0.7 mg/kg, respectively. Among contaminated corn DG samples, five DDGS samples for aflatoxin contained a higher concentration than the U.S. Food and Drug Administration action level for use in animal feed, whereas no sample for fumonisin was found above the action level. The study results raised some important issues associated with the quality and use of DG by-products, suggesting several approaches and strategies for their effective and safe use as a feed ingredient to promote animal and human health and welfare.

PMID: 26408135 [PubMed - in process]

http://www.foodprotection.org/publications/journal-of-food-protection/

I don’t guess I am smart enough to have access to this journal, but found this abstract, and found this study of Selected Nutrients and Contaminants in Distillers Grains from Ethanol Production in Texas, and the fact they found BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY BSE TSE PRION IN ONE SAMPLE OF SORGHUM DDGS OUT OF 168 DG SAMPLES in 2015, I find this disturbing, but does not surprise me. ($$$) ...terry

a review of the TSE prion aka mad cow type disease in Texas, what I call the Texas mad cow two step, or the mad cow TSE Prion follies of the TAHC $$$

1st mad cow that got away $$$

snip...tss

Sunday, September 27, 2015

TEXAS CONFIRMATION OF BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY BSE TSE PRION IN ONE SAMPLE OF SORGHUM DDGS OUT OF 168 DG SAMPLES

http://bovineprp.blogspot.com/2015/09/texas-confirmation-of-bovine-spongiform.html

kind regards, terry
 
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