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Notice to Members Regarding Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD)

Posted on: May 31st, 2017

To: MNA Members

From: Métis Nation of Alberta

Date: Wednesday, May 31, 2017

Métis Nation of Alberta (MNA) was made aware of a recent Canadian research study examining the transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease. The initial results of the study indicate that macaque monkeys (genetically similar to humans) can be infected with Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) after eating deer that is infected with CWD. CWD is a prion disease, which are fatal, transmissible diseases characterized by abnormal proteins in the brain and nervous system. To date no research has shown that CWD can be passed on to humans, and no human cases of CWD have ever been identified. However, this new research indicates that it is a possibility. The Deputy Chief Medical Officer of Health has reached out to us to share with our Métis harvesters this important information.

For more information you can visit:

http://aep.alberta.ca/fish-wildlife...onic-wasting-disease/cwd-updates/default.aspx

and

www.nwhc.usgs.gov/disease_information/chronic_wasting_disease/index.jsp.

What the Alberta Government knows:

CWD is present in southeastern Alberta, with the area slowly spreading westward over time (introduced into Alberta from Saskatchewan) â€" see map for more information at http://aep.alberta.ca/fish-wildlife...uments/HuntersCWD-HarvestedDeerHeads-2016.pdf

CWD circulates in deer populations, particularly mule deer; it has been found in about 4% of deer tested in 2016;

Elk can be infected in areas where CWD has been present in deer for a long period of time;

Moose can also be infected, but this would be fairly rare.
Necessary Precautions for Harvesters:

Hunters and others who handle carcasses follow basic handling precautions (available here http://aep.alberta.ca/fish-wildlife...DeerCarcassTransportationHandling-Oct2009.pdf

All deer, moose and elk harvested from CWD mandatory submission wildlife management units (WMUs) be tested for CWD; and

A negative result (no CWD detected by the test) must be obtained before any part of an animal is eaten.

For more information, contact:
Amy Quintal
Métis Nation of Alberta
Métis Harvesting Liaison
Tel: (780) 455 â€" 2200
[email protected]

http://albertametis.com/2017/05/notice-members-regarding-chronic-wasting-disease-cwd/

FRIDAY, JUNE 02, 2017

Alberta Canada Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) Surveillance Update: 2016/17 Final

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2017/06/alberta-canada-chronic-wasting-disease.html

Chronic Wasting Disease: CFIA Research Summary

Embargoed until May 23, 2017

(OCR of a scanned original)

Research Findings

Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) is a progressive, fatal disease of the nervous system of cervids including deer, elk, moose, and reindeer that is caused by abnormal proteins called prions. It is known as a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE). Other TSEs include scrapie in sheep, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans.

A limited number of experimental studies have demonstrated that non-human primates, specifically squirrel monkeys, are susceptible to CWD prions. An ongoing research study has now shown that CWD can also be transmitted to macaques, which are genetically closer to humans.

The study led by Dr. Stefanie Czub, a scientist at the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA), and funded by the Alberta Prion Research institute has demonstrated that by orally administering material under experimental conditions from cervids (deer and elk) naturally infected with CWD, the disease can be transmitted to macaques.

in this project, which began in 2009, 18 macaques were exposed to CWD in a variety of ways: by injecting into the brain, through contact with skin, oral administration, and intravenously (into the bloodstream through veins). So far, results are available from 5 animals. At this point, two animals that were exposed to CWD by direct introduction into the brain, one that was administered infected brain material by oral administration and two that were given infected muscle by oral administration have become infected with CWD. The study is ongoing and testing continues in the remaining animals. The early results will be presented at PRlON 2017, the annual international conference on prion diseases, in Edinburgh, Scotland, May 23 to 26, 2017.

Potential impacts of the new finding

Since 2003 Canada has a policy that recommends that animals and materials known to be infected with prions be removed from the food chain and from health products. Although no direct evidence of CWD prion transmission to humans has ever been recorded, the policy advocates a precautionary approach to managing CWD and potential human exposure to prions. These initial findings do not change Health Canada’s Health Products and Food Branch (HPFB) position on food and health products. A precautionary approach is still recommended to manage the potential risks of exposure to prions through food and health products. Measures are in place at federal, provincial and territorial levels to reduce human exposure to products potentially contaminated by CWD by preventing known infected animals from entering the marketplace.

While Federal and P/T government’s animal disease control policies continue to divert known CWD-infected animals away from entering the food and feed supply, research and development of sensitive detection methods including live-animal sampling techniques remain crucial for ensuring an accurate diagnosis. In addition, consistent federal, provincial and territorial communications of appropriate precautionary measures for hunters and indigenous communities are required.

Next Steps

The CFlA will continue to collaborate with national and international partners to develop and validate new diagnostic techniques. The CFlA will also continue to offer confirmatory testing services and reference laboratory expertise to provincial and territorial partners on demand.

Currently, CFlA laboratories are leading or collaborating on several research projects to understand the potential for CWD to infect humans. These projects use non‐human primates, genetically modified mice, and cell-free amplification approaches. Given the present findings, CFiA encourages continued research into TSEs.

The results of this study reinforce the need to redesign the federal program to foster greater adoption of risk mitigation measures for farmed cervids. Federal and provincial government collaboration will continue as new program options are assessed.

The results of Dr. Czub’s research into CWD will be of interest to scientists, governments, industry and people who consume cervid products. After the presentation at PRION 2017, the research will follow the normal steps of completion, peer review and publication. The Government of Canada will monitor the response to this research and determine whether further review of the science is required. Other studies underway by other researchers may also become public as a result of the presentation of Dr. Czub’s research.

The Public Health Agency of Canada, Health Canada, CFlA and other Federal partners are working together to assess what policies or programs need further review as well as preparing other communications about the research and health policy and advice to Canadian. 2017/04/28

===end...UNOFFICIAL...NO URL LINK...TSS===

0:30 First evidence of intracranial and peroral transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) into Cynomolgus macaques: a work in progress

Dr Stefanie Czub University of Calgary Faculty of Veterinary Medicine/Canadian Food Inspection Agency Canada

http://prion2017.org/programme/

WEDNESDAY, MAY 03, 2017

*** First evidence of intracranial and peroral transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) into Cynomolgus macaques

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2017/05/first-evidence-of-intracranial-and.html

Wednesday, May 24, 2017

PRION2017 CONFERENCE VIDEO UPDATE 23 â€" 26 May 2017 Edinburgh UPDATE 1

Subject: PRION2017 CONFERENCE VIDEO UPDATE 23 â€" 26 May 2017 Edinburgh

*see archives of previous Prion Conferences, the ones that are still available, scroll down towards bottom in this link.

http://prionprp.blogspot.com/2017/05/prion2017-conference-video-update-23-26.html

WEDNESDAY, MAY 31, 2017

Texas New Exotic CWD Susceptible Species Rules Now in Effect

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2017/05/texas-new-exotic-cwd-susceptible.html

sad regards, terry
 

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Macaques and humans aren't related per the MWT definition...:wave:
 

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Discussion Starter · #6 ·
Macaques and humans aren't related per the MWT definition...:wave:
The macaque genome is the second non-human primate, after the chimp, to have its genome sequenced and the first Old World monkey to have its DNA deciphered. The macaque genome is important because it is more distant to the human than the chimp or the orangutan genomes. This means that important genome features that are conserved through evolution can be more easily seen by comparing the macaque to human.

“Having in hand the genomes of primates more distantly related to humans than the chimp will give researchers an opportunity to determine the precise changes in each of the genomes over the course of evolution, from macaques to marmosets to orangutan, chimps and humans,†Wilson added. “This is important because macaques and marmosets also serve as a valuable model for studying human infectious diseases, such as HIV, and for vaccine research.

https://source.wustl.edu/2007/04/rh...eals-dna-similarities-with-chimps-and-humans/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2733804/

2009

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, or prion disease, that affects deer, elk, and moose. Human susceptibility to CWD remains unproven despite likely exposure to CWD-infected cervids. We used 2 nonhuman primate species, cynomolgus macaques and squirrel monkeys, as human models for CWD susceptibility. CWD was inoculated into these 2 species by intracerebral and oral routes. After intracerebral inoculation of squirrel monkeys, 7 of 8 CWD isolates induced a clinical wasting syndrome within 33â€"53 months. The monkeys’ brains showed spongiform encephalopathy and protease-resistant prion protein (PrPres) diagnostic of prion disease. After oral exposure, 2 squirrel monkeys had PrPres in brain, spleen, and lymph nodes at 69 months postinfection. In contrast, cynomolgus macaques have not shown evidence of clinical disease as of 70 months postinfection. Thus, these 2 species differed in susceptibility to CWD. Because humans are evolutionarily closer to macaques than to squirrel monkeys, they may also be resistant to CWD.

Second, we compared 2 species of nonhuman primates, cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) and squirrel monkeys, each of which has previously shown susceptibility to various human prion diseases (14â€"16). However, humans are believed to be evolutionarily closer to cynomolgus macaques than to squirrel monkeys (17), and cynomolgus macaques may be a more accurate model for a human species barrier.

The PrP gene sequence can influence cross-species transmission of prion disease. Therefore, we compared squirrel monkey and cynomolgus macaque PrP gene sequences to look for differences that might account for different susceptibilities of these monkeys to CWD. In the PrP gene excluding the signal peptide, deer differed from squirrel monkeys at 17 residues and from cynomolgus macaques at 16 residues, but 14 of these differing residues were identical in squirrel monkeys and macaques (Figure 4). Therefore, there are only 2 residues in cynomolgus macaques (100 and 108) and 3 residues in squirrel monkeys (56, 159 and 182) at which these monkeys differ from deer and also from each other. These residues might play a role in susceptibility differences seen in our study.

https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/15/9/09-0253_article

LOOKING FOR CWD IN HUMANS AS nvCJD or as an ATYPICAL CJD, LOOKING IN ALL THE WRONG PLACES $$$

*** These results would seem to suggest that CWD does indeed have zoonotic potential, at least as judged by the compatibility of CWD prions and their human PrPC target. Furthermore, extrapolation from this simple in vitro assay suggests that if zoonotic CWD occurred, it would most likely effect those of the PRNP codon 129-MM genotype and that the PrPres type would be similar to that found in the most common subtype of sCJD (MM1).***

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.4161/pri.28124?src=recsys

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.4161/pri.28124?needAccess=true

Molecular Barriers to Zoonotic Transmission of Prions

*** chronic wasting disease, there was no absolute barrier to conversion of the human prion protein.

*** Furthermore, the form of human PrPres produced in this in vitro assay when seeded with CWD, resembles that found in the most common human prion disease, namely sCJD of the MM1 subtype.

http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/20/1/13-0858_article.htm

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2014/01/molecular-barriers-to-zoonotic.html

SPONTANEOUS ATYPICAL BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY

***Moreover, sporadic disease has never been observed in breeding colonies or primate research laboratories, most notably among hundreds of animals over several decades of study at the National Institutes of Health25, and in nearly twenty older animals continuously housed in our own facility.***

https://www.nature.com/articles/srep11573

continued in part 2...terry
 

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Discussion Starter · #7 ·
continued in part 2...terry
*** WDA 2016 NEW YORK ***

We found that CWD adapts to a new host more readily than BSE and that human PrP was unexpectedly prone to misfolding by CWD prions.

In addition, we investigated the role of specific regions of the bovine, deer and human PrP protein in resistance to conversion by prions from another species.

We have concluded that the human protein has a region that confers unusual susceptibility to conversion by CWD prions.

Student Presentations Session 2

The species barriers and public health threat of CWD and BSE prions

Ms. Kristen Davenport1, Dr. Davin Henderson1, Dr. Candace Mathiason1, Dr. Edward Hoover1 1Colorado State University

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is spreading rapidly through cervid populations in the USA. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, mad cow disease) arose in the 1980s because cattle were fed recycled animal protein. These and other prion diseases are caused by abnormal folding of the normal prion protein (PrP) into a disease causing form (PrPd), which is pathogenic to nervous system cells and can cause subsequent PrP to misfold. CWD spreads among cervids very efficiently, but it has not yet infected humans. On the other hand, BSE was spread only when cattle consumed infected bovine or ovine tissue, but did infect humans and other species. The objective of this research is to understand the role of PrP structure in cross-species infection by CWD and BSE. To study the propensity of each species’ PrP to be induced to misfold by the presence of PrPd from verious species, we have used an in vitro system that permits detection of PrPd in real-time. We measured the conversion efficiency of various combinations of PrPd seeds and PrP substrate combinations. We observed the cross-species behavior of CWD and BSE, in addition to feline-adapted CWD and BSE. We found that CWD adapts to a new host more readily than BSE and that human PrP was unexpectedly prone to misfolding by CWD prions. In addition, we investigated the role of specific regions of the bovine, deer and human PrP protein in resistance to conversion by prions from another species.

***We have concluded that the human protein has a region that confers unusual susceptibility to conversion by CWD prions.

CWD is unique among prion diseases in its rapid spread in natural populations. BSE prions are essentially unaltered upon passage to a new species, while CWD adapts to the new species. This adaptation has consequences for surveillance of humans exposed to CWD.

Wildlife Disease Risk Communication Research Contributes to Wildlife Trust Administration Exploring perceptions about chronic wasting disease risks among wildlife and agriculture professionals and stakeholders

http://www.wda2016.org/uploads/5/8/6/1/58613359/wda_2016_conference_proceedings_low_res.pdf

PRION 2016 TOKYO

Zoonotic Potential of CWD Prions: An Update

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a widespread and highly transmissible prion disease in free-ranging and captive cervid species in North America. The zoonotic potential of CWD prions is a serious public health concern, but the susceptibility of human CNS and peripheral organs to CWD prions remains largely unresolved. We reported earlier that peripheral and CNS infections were detected in transgenic mice expressing human PrP129M or PrP129V. Here we will present an update on this project, including evidence for strain dependence and influence of cervid PrP polymorphisms on CWD zoonosis as well as the characteristics of experimental human CWD prions.

PRION 2016 TOKYO In Conjunction with Asia Pacific Prion Symposium 2016 PRION 2016 Tokyo Prion 2016

http://prion2016.org/dl/newsletter_03.pdf

Cervid to human prion transmission

Kong, Qingzhong

Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, United States

Abstract

Prion disease is transmissible and invariably fatal. Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is the prion disease affecting deer, elk and moose, and it is a widespread and expanding epidemic affecting 22 US States and 2 Canadian provinces so far. CWD poses the most serious zoonotic prion transmission risks in North America because of huge venison consumption (>6 million deer/elk hunted and consumed annually in the USA alone), significant prion infectivity in muscles and other tissues/fluids from CWD-affected cervids, and usually high levels of individual exposure to CWD resulting from consumption of the affected animal among often just family and friends. However, we still do not know whether CWD prions can infect humans in the brain or peripheral tissues or whether clinical/asymptomatic CWD zoonosis has already occurred, and we have no essays to reliably detect CWD infection in humans. We hypothesize that:

(1) The classic CWD prion strain can infect humans at low levels in the brain and peripheral lymphoid tissues;

(2) The cervid-to-human transmission barrier is dependent on the cervid prion strain and influenced by the host (human) prion protein (PrP) primary sequence;

(3) Reliable essays can be established to detect CWD infection in humans; and

(4) CWD transmission to humans has already occurred. We will test these hypotheses in 4 Aims using transgenic (Tg) mouse models and complementary in vitro approaches.

Aim 1 will prove that the classical CWD strain may infect humans in brain or peripheral lymphoid tissues at low levels by conducting systemic bioassays in a set of "humanized" Tg mouse lines expressing common human PrP variants using a number of CWD isolates at varying doses and routes. Experimental "human CWD" samples will also be generated for Aim 3.

Aim 2 will test the hypothesis that the cervid-to-human prion transmission barrier is dependent on prion strain and influenced by the host (human) PrP sequence by examining and comparing the transmission efficiency and phenotypes of several atypical/unusual CWD isolates/strains as well as a few prion strains from other species that have adapted to cervid PrP sequence, utilizing the same panel of humanized Tg mouse lines as in Aim 1.

Aim 3 will establish reliable essays for detection and surveillance of CWD infection in humans by examining in details the clinical, pathological, biochemical and in vitro seeding properties of existing and future experimental "human CWD" samples generated from Aims 1-2 and compare them with those of common sporadic human Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) prions.

Aim 4 will attempt to detect clinical CWD-affected human cases by examining a significant number of brain samples from prion-affected human subjects in the USA and Canada who have consumed venison from CWD-endemic areas utilizing the criteria and essays established in Aim 3. The findings from this proposal will greatly advance our understandings on the potential and characteristics of cervid prion transmission in humans, establish reliable essays for CWD zoonosis and potentially discover the first case(s) of CWD infection in humans.

Public Health Relevance There are significant and increasing human exposure to cervid prions because chronic wasting disease (CWD, a widespread and highly infectious prion disease among deer and elk in North America) continues spreading and consumption of venison remains popular, but our understanding on cervid-to-human prion transmission is still very limited, raising public health concerns. This proposal aims to define the zoonotic risks of cervid prions and set up and apply essays to detect CWD zoonosis using mouse models and in vitro methods. The findings will greatly expand our knowledge on the potentials and characteristics of cervid prion transmission in humans, establish reliable essays for such infections and may discover the first case(s) of CWD infection in humans.

http://grantome.com/grant/NIH/R01-NS088604-01A1

WEDNESDAY, MAY 03, 2017

*** First evidence of intracranial and peroral transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) into Cynomolgus macaques

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2017/05/first-evidence-of-intracranial-and.html

terry
 

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Discussion Starter · #9 ·
Subject: PRION 2017 CONFERENCE ABSTRACT First evidence of intracranial and peroral transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) into Cynomolgus macaques: a work in progress

First evidence of intracranial and peroral transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) into Cynomolgus macaques: a work in progress

Stefanie Czub1, Walter Schulz-Schaeffer2, Christiane Stahl-Hennig3, Michael Beekes4, Hermann Schaetzl5 and Dirk Motzkus6 1

University of Calgary Faculty of Veterinary Medicine/Canadian Food Inspection Agency; 2Universitatsklinikum des Saarlandes und Medizinische Fakultat der Universitat des Saarlandes; 3 Deutsches Primaten Zentrum/Goettingen; 4 Robert-Koch-Institut Berlin; 5 University of Calgary Faculty of Veterinary Medicine; 6 presently: Boehringer Ingelheim Veterinary Research Center; previously: Deutsches Primaten Zentrum/Goettingen

This is a progress report of a project which started in 2009. 21 cynomolgus macaques were challenged with characterized CWD material from white-tailed deer (WTD) or elk by intracerebral (ic), oral, and skin exposure routes. Additional blood transfusion experiments are supposed to assess the CWD contamination risk of human blood product. Challenge materials originated from symptomatic cervids for ic, skin scarification and partially per oral routes (WTD brain). Challenge material for feeding of muscle derived from preclinical WTD and from preclinical macaques for blood transfusion experiments. We have confirmed that the CWD challenge material contained at least two different CWD agents (brain material) as well as CWD prions in muscle-associated nerves.

Here we present first data on a group of animals either challenged ic with steel wires or per orally and sacrificed with incubation times ranging from 4.5 to 6.9 years at postmortem. Three animals displayed signs of mild clinical disease, including anxiety, apathy, ataxia and/or tremor. In four animals wasting was observed, two of those had confirmed diabetes. All animals have variable signs of prion neuropathology in spinal cords and brains and by supersensitive IHC, reaction was detected in spinal cord segments of all animals. Protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA), real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuiC) and PET-blot assays to further substantiate these findings are on the way, as well as bioassays in bank voles and transgenic mice.

At present, a total of 10 animals are sacrificed and read-outs are ongoing. Preclinical incubation of the remaining macaques covers a range from 6.4 to 7.10 years. Based on the species barrier and an incubation time of > 5 years for BSE in macaques and about 10 years for scrapie in macaques, we expected an onset of clinical disease beyond 6 years post inoculation.

PRION 2017 DECIPHERING NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS

TUESDAY, JUNE 13, 2017

PRION 2017 CONFERENCE ABSTRACT First evidence of intracranial and peroral transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) into Cynomolgus macaques: a work in progress

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2017/06/prion-2017-conference-abstract-first.html

kind regards, terry
 

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I'm surprised you could post ma**** and oral in the same thread and not get banded
 

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FOUNDER ALL OF THAT FINE WORK FROM PROFESSIONALS , and no work to explore the genesis of cwd , just like mad cow s genesis was not examined after they had something to report to the public.
To up the anti of fear while not exploring what it is that makes the first prion is taking us down a slippery slope that will not end well.When it is found how to create a prion where none existed we will have the answers that we need to combat it. Again it is a fine line between bat science and science.If these bastions of higher learning are correct the word will someday consist mainly of just shed protein cells. That does not pass the sniff test.
 

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Discussion Starter · #13 · (Edited)
FOUNDER ALL OF THAT FINE WORK FROM PROFESSIONALS , and no work to explore the genesis of cwd , just like mad cow s genesis was not examined after they had something to report to the public.
To up the anti of fear while not exploring what it is that makes the first prion is taking us down a slippery slope that will not end well.When it is found how to create a prion where none existed we will have the answers that we need to combat it. Again it is a fine line between bat science and science.If these bastions of higher learning are correct the word will someday consist mainly of just shed protein cells. That does not pass the sniff test.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.2903/j.efsa.2017.4667/epdf

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/19336896.2015.1115179

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4964855/pdf/kprn-09-06-1115179.pdf

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1567134809001956?via=ihub

http://forest.wisc.edu/files/pdfs/s...al genetic susceptibility chronic wasting.pdf

http://lib.dr.iastate.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1083&context=nrem_pubs

***at present, no cervid PrP allele conferring absolute resistance to prion infection has been identified.

P-145 Estimating chronic wasting disease resistance in cervids using real time quaking- induced conversion

Nicholas J Haley1, Rachel Rielinqer2, Kristen A Davenport3, W. David Walter4, Katherine I O'Rourke5, Gordon Mitchell6, Juergen A Richt2 1 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Midwestern University, United States; 2Department of Diagnostic Medicine and Pathobiology, Kansas State University; 3Prion Research Center; Colorado State University; 4U.S. Geological Survey, Pennsylvania Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit; 5Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture; 6Canadian Food Inspection Agency, National and OlE Reference Laboratory for Scrapie and CWD

In mammalian species, the susceptibility to prion diseases is affected, in part, by the sequence of the host's prion protein (PrP). In sheep, a gradation from scrapie susceptible to resistant has been established both in vivo and in vitro based on the amino acids present at PrP positions 136, 154, and 171, which has led to global breeding programs to reduce the prevalence of scrapie in domestic sheep. In cervids, resistance is commonly characterized as a delayed progression of chronic wasting disease (CWD); at present, no cervid PrP allele conferring absolute resistance to prion infection has been identified. To model the susceptibility of various naturally-occurring and hypothetical cervid PrP alleles in vitro, we compared the amplification rates and efficiency of various CWD isolates in recombinant PrPC using real time quaking-induced conversion. We hypothesized that amplification metrics of these isolates in cervid PrP substrates would correlate to in vivo susceptibility - allowing susceptibility prediction for alleles found at 10 frequency in nature, and that there would be an additive effect of multiple resistant codons in hypothetical alleles. Our studies demonstrate that in vitro amplification metrics predict in vivo susceptibility, and that alleles with multiple codons, each influencing resistance independently, do not necessarily contribute additively to resistance. Importantly, we found that the white-tailed deer 226K substrate exhibited the slowest amplification rate among those evaluated, suggesting that further investigation of this allele and its resistance in vivo are warranted to determine if absolute resistance to CWD is possible.

***at present, no cervid PrP allele conferring absolute resistance to prion infection has been identified.

PRION 2016 CONFERENCE TOKYO

http://prion2016.org/dl/newsletter_03.pdf

TUESDAY, JULY 04, 2017

PRION 2017 CONFERENCE ABSTRACTS ON CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD TSE PRION

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2017/07/prion-2017-conference-abstracts-on.html

kind regards, terry
 
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